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Glossary

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)

Currently, certain functionalities used in Web sites are not available to some users with disabilities, especially people who rely on screen readers and people who cannot use a mouse. ARIA addresses these accessibility challenges. With ARIA, developers can make advanced Web applications accessible and usable to people with disabilities.

Assistive Technology

Software and hardware that people with disabilities use to improve interaction with the web. These include screen readers that read aloud web pages for people who cannot read the text, screen magnifiers for people with some types of low vision, and voice recognition software and selection switches for people who cannot use a keyboard or mouse.

Freedom of Information Act

Since 1967, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) has provided the public the right to request access to records from any federal agency. Federal agencies are required to disclose any information requested under the FOIA unless it falls under one of nine exemptions which protect interests such as personal privacy, national security, and law enforcement.

Website Compliance (WCAG 2.0)

iAccessible defines website compliance as a websites conformance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) which is viewed as the global standard for web accessibility.

WCAG is meant to stable and referenceable technical standards.
The guidelines are organized under 4 principles

  1. Perceivable
  2. Operable
  3. Understandable
  4. Robust

Each guideline has testable success criteria, which are categorized into 3 levels of difficulty

  1. A
  2. AA
  3. AAA

WCAG 2.0 Level AA is the standard most legislation around the world, such as Section 508, hold websites accountable for.

Website Compliance (WCAG 2.1)

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1, was published on June 5, 2018 and builds upon WCAG 2.0 in order to include a wider range of individuals with disabilities.

Content that conforms to WCAG 2.1 also conforms to WCAG 2.0. The main purpose of WCAG 2.1 is to provide additional and alternative means of conformance.

WCAG 2.1 introduces 17 new success criteria with level of difficulty ranging from A to AAA

Even though WCAG 2.0 AA is the most cited legal standard, it is recommended that WCAG 2.1 be adopted as a site’s conformance target in order to provide improved accessibility and be ahead of future policy changes.

Document Compliance (PDF/UA)

iAccessible defines document/pdf compliance to section 508 as compliance with ISO 14289 also known as PDF/UA. PDF/UA was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and on February 18, 2015 the US Access Board identified PDF/UA as equivalent to WCAG 2.0 for “appropriate content” under Section 508 of the rehabilitation act.

Integrated JIRA Ticketing

iAccessible can integrate with your organizations’ JIRA ticketing system or you can purchase a JIRA solution directly from iAccessible. When accessibility issues are found, iAccessible can export unique issues to your JIRA ticket so that your organizations web developers are able to quickly and efficiently remediate the issues.

Website Domain

iAccessible is not only able to run on public websites, but users also have the option of using iAccessible in a development/testing environment. This is recommended as it allows for accessibility features to be built in from the beginning which will result in cost savings resulting from less remediation efforts once web content is in the public domain.

Monthly Credit Card Billing

iAccessible charges for its solutions via recurring monthly billing. Clients may elect to make payments via iAccessible’s secure PayPal interface.

Purchase Agreement

Organizations may elect to enter into a Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) with iAccessible. BPAs are beneficial because it allows clients to streamline the purchase of solutions and/or services. Once a BPA is established, authorized users can use the BPA unique ID to purchase iAccessible solutions and/or services.

Security Standard

iAccessible is a highly secure application  for government agencies, iAccessible can be hosted in a FISMA low or FISMA moderate environment as defined by Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

Standards

21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA)

Enacted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the CVAA adds on to previously enacted laws that aimed to make television and telephone services accessible to individuals with disabilities. The CVAA provides protections so the disabled individuals can better access broadband, digital, and mobile innovations.

21st­ Century Integrated Digital Experience Act (IDEA)

The 21st Century IDEA Act requires that public service agencies report their state of Section 508 compliance to Congress by December 20, 2019. While Section 508 was recently refreshed and the requirements have been around for a couple of decades, this brings a renewed focus on Section 508, requiring CIO's of agencies to submit a report of the baseline status to Congress, with annual updates on the progress.

 Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA)

Originally enacted in 1986, ACAA was amended in 2013 by the Department of Transportation. The amendment made it mandatory for air carriers to make their websites, that market air transportation, accessible to individuals with disabilities. The relevant standard that air carries must conform to is WCAG 2.0 Level AA.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

The purpose of the ADA is to ensure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else.

The Department of Justice has made public statements articulating that under title III of the ADA public websites are public accommodations and as such need to be accessible to individuals with disabilities.

In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in lawsuits against commercial websites brought forth under title III of the ADA. Perhaps the most famous being Domino’s Pizza v. Guillermo Robles.

Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996

Under Section 255 of the Communications Act telecommunications equipment manufacturers and service providers are required to make their products and services accessible to people with disabilities, if such access is readily achievable.

Where access is not readily achievable, manufacturers and service providers must make their devices and services compatible with peripheral devices and specialized customer premises equipment that are commonly used by people with disabilities.

Section 504 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973

 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a national law that protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. The nondiscrimination requirements of the law apply to employers and organizations that receive financial assistance from any Federal department or agency.

Those who fall under the jurisdiction of Section 504 must provide appropriate aids, when necessary, to ensure equal opportunity. Such examples include braille, captioning of videos, etc.

 Section 508 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Originally enacted in 1973, Section 508 was “refreshed” in 2017 to cover a wider range of information and communication technology (ICT).

Section 508 applies to all ICT developed, maintained, procured, or used by federal agencies.

The 2017 “refresh” aimed to ensure consistency in accessibility across the spectrum of ICT. Other goals included:

  • enhancing accessibility to ICT for people with disabilities;
  • making the requirements easier to understand and follow;
  • updating the requirements so that they stay abreast of the ever-changing nature of the technologies covered; and
  • harmonizing the requirements with other standards in the U.S. and abroad.

 Section 1557 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

 Section 1557 is the nondiscrimination provision of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It prohibits discrimination ,in certain health programs or activities, based on various things, such as race, but also based on disability.

 Section 1557 extends nondiscrimination protections to individuals participating in:

  • Any health program or activity any part of which received funding from Health and Human Services (HHS)
  • Any health program or activity that HHS itself administers
  • Health Insurance Marketplaces and all plans offered by issuers that participate in those Marketplaces.

Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Discrimination against persons with disabilities is prohibited by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Title II prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by public entities, whether or not they receive federal financial assistance). This includes discrimination against individuals currently without an impairment that substantially limits of a major life activity, but who have a record of or are regarded as having a disability.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)

WCAG is developed through the W3C process with a goal of providing a single shared standard for web content accessibility.
WCAG is primarily intended for:

  • Web content developers (page authors, site designers, etc.)
  • Web authoring tool developers
  • Web accessibility evaluation tool developers
  • Others who want or need a standard for web accessibility, including for mobile accessibility